In fact, the basic principle of new technology fermentation is basically the same as that of traditional fermentation, which is the process of converting starch in grain into wine.
Starch (+ amylase) → glucose (+ Saccharomyces cerevisiae) → wine → (trace elements acid, aldehyde, lipid, alcohol, etc.) (saccharification process) → (pottery Collection) → (esterification process)
1、 The basic principle of traditional fermentation
Starch, raw materials such as sorghum, rice, corn, potato and wild plants are usually steamed in high temperature (Baijiu), which makes the plant cells and cells completely broken. Starch granules from raw materials are expanded by water and gelatinized, so that they are affected by the enzymes of amylase and the bacteria in the process of starch hydrolysis. There are differences in the way of producing starch materials in the process of cooking due to the different Baijiu products. Among them, Fen Liquor of Daqu flavor type is steamed by grain alone; Wuliangye Liquor of Daqu flavor type and Quanxing Daqu liquor are steamed by grain and fermented grains; Sichuan Xiaoqu liquor of Xiaoqu flavor type is steamed by grain alone.
2、 The basic principle of new brewing technology
Understanding the traditional clinker solid-state fermentation process is very helpful to master the raw meal fermentation, because the basic principles of both the traditional clinker solid-state fermentation and the modern raw meal liquid-state fermentation are completely the same. The difference is that the saccharification ability of traditional distiller's yeast is not strong, so the raw materials must be cooked first to make it gelatinized, so that the enzyme can work. However, uncooked distiller's yeast is suitable for enzymes with relatively strong saccharification ability and their decomposing enzymes to directly act on the outer membrane of starch granules to decompose starch to form dextrin, which is then transformed into maltose to obtain fermentable glucose.
Starch is not only transformed into wine, but also into other substances. The composition and characteristics of the decomposition products in the process of saccharification are as follows
Starch: is connected by many glucose as the basic unit, can be divided into amylose and amylopectin two categories. Amylose is composed of a large number of glucose molecules which are dehydrated and condensed with α 1,4-bonds to form a chain structure without branching points. Amylopectin is a branched chain structure, and its two glucose residues in the branches are bound with α 1,6-bonds. All waxy starch such as sorghum, rice and corn is almost amylopectin; about 80% of grains are amylopectin and 20% amylose.
Amylose: relative molecular weight of tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands, easy to dissolve in warm water, solution viscosity is not big, easy to aging, enzymatic hydrolysis is complete, meet iodine solution is blue.
Oligosaccharides: 3-10 glucose residues. Amylose does not react with iodine when it decomposes at least 6 glucose residues, because the chain of 6 glucose residues forms a helix, which can bind one iodine molecule. The color reaction of iodine solution with starch and non decomposed products was blue, purple, red, brown and yellow (iodine solution color)
Disaccharide: for example, maltose is made from two glucose molecules and one water molecule, and sucrose is made from one sugar molecule and one fructose molecule and one water molecule
Fermentable sugars: monosaccharides such as glucose and fructose and disaccharides mentioned above can be used by yeast. It is the most basic fermentable sugar.
The fermented grain is finally put into Jiuxiang liquor making equipment for the final distillation, and the distilled product is good wine.